Foreclosure Laws in the USA By State
Though there are many similarities, the foreclosure process and associated foreclosure law varies from state to state. Foreclosure laws can be complex and much of the differences depend on whether the state uses mortgages or deeds of trust for the purchase of real estate. as a general rule of thumb, states that use mortgages will typically conduct judicial foreclosures, while states that use deeds of trust tend to conduct non-judicial foreclosures. The principal difference between the two is that a Judicial procedure requires court action on a foreclosed home, but a Non-Judical does not.
The table below will give you an idea of which states use mortgages (judicial) or deeds of trust (non-judicial) or both. The table also includes estimated timelines for total foreclosure time, Time from Notice of Trustee Sale to the actual foreclosure and Redemption times where applicable for each state. Note that laws change from time to time and at the time of the writing of this page the information was correct to the best of our knowledge. If you find a discrepancy or anything needing correction PLEASE do not hesitate to let us know by clicking here to Contact Us.
As always, it is best to consult an attorney and check with your local county government to verify this information.
* Redemption Periods marked with an asterisk are for Judical Foreclosures Only.
|State||Judicial||Non-Judicial||Total Time from NOD, (Days)||Timing for NTS, (Days)||Redemption Period, (Days)||Who Handles NTS||Comments|
|Alabama||49-74||21||365||Trustee||Judicial Rarely Used|
|Alaska||105||65||365*||Trustee||Judicial Rarely Used|
|Arizona||90+||41||30-180*||Trustee||Judicial Rarely Used|
|California||117||21||365*||Trustee||Judicial Rarely Used|
|Colorado||145||60||None||Trustee||Judicial Rarely Used|
|Connecticut||62||NA||Court Decree||Court||Judicial Only|
|Georgia||37||32||None||Trustee||Judicial Rarely Used|
|Iowa||160||30||20||Sheriff||Trustee Sale Voluntary|
|Maryland||46||30||Court Decree||Court||Judicial Only|
|Montana||150||50||None||Trustee||Mostly Trustee Sale|
|Nevada||116||80||None||Trustee||Mostly Trustee Sale|
|New Hampshire||59||24||None||Trustee||Non-Judicial Only|
|New Jersey||270||NA||10||Sheriff||Judicial Only|
|New Mexico||180||NA||30-270||Court||Judicial Only|
|New York||445||NA||None||Court||Judicial Only|
|North Carolina||110||25||None||Sheriff||Mostly Non-Judicial|
|North Dakota||150||NA||180-365||Sheriff||Judicial Only|
|Oregon||150||30||180||Trustee||Mostly Trustee Sale|
|Rhode Island||62||21||None||Trustee||Mostly Non-Judicial|
|South Carolina||150||NA||None||Court||Judicial Only|
|South Dakota||150||23||30-365||Sheriff||Judicial mostly|
|Utah||142||NA||Court Decree||Trustee||Non-Judicial Only|
|Virginia||45||14-28||None||Trustee||Mostly Trustee Sale|
|Washington||135||90||None||Trustee||Mostly Trustee Sale|
|Washington DC||47||18||None||Trustee||Trustee Sale only|
|West Virginia||60-90||30-60||None||Trustee||Trustee Sale only|
Foreclosure Laws & Rules
The following links will bring you to the federal laws and rules pertaining to Foreclosure.
Chapter 13 in Title 12 of the U.S. CodeFederal laws governing foreclosures across the United States.
Section 7425 in Title 26 of the U.S. CodeLaw governing the “right of redemption” by the United States to satisfy federal tax liens.
Chapter 50 in Title 50 of the U.S. CodeFederal law governing civil relief for servicemembers. See Subchapter III for sections regarding the foreclosure protections for those on active duty.
Protecting Tenants at Foreclosure Act (Public Law 111–22, Title VII)Federal law providing protections for tenants living in properties affected by foreclosure.
Title 12, Section 1024.41(f)(i) of the Code of Federal RegulationsFederal regulation issued by the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau that states the mortgage loan obligation must be over 120 days delinquent before initiating a foreclosure action.